If we analyze the biological process of speech, we find that it requires the amazing coordination of the larynx, cheeks, tongue, and lips to produce sound. We usually are not quite aware of this complex coordination, but we can sense the lack of such coordination when a person stammers.

 Stuttering or Stammering is known as Dysphemia.


Types of Stuttering

Developmental Stuttering

 This type is mostly found in children younger than 5years old. This usually occurs during a child’s speech and language development, where there is a lag between speech and language abilities.

Neurogenic Stuttering

 This type can occur after a head injury, psychological trauma, and stroke.




In one form of Stammering, the stammer cannot utter a word clearly- spasm occurs in the speech muscles, and they get stuck with the first sound. For example, So instead of saying ‘mother,’ he would say ‘m-m-m-mother.’


In another form, the muscles in tongues in the tongue, throat, and face get spasms, and even though facial muscles work to make sound, no words come out. His face gets twisted.

Dysphemia rarely shows up before the age of four or five. It mostly occurs after puberty. It is more common in males than in females. According to the studies, the ratio between males and females is that 4:1.

Stuttering Causes


  • Depression
  • Social Anxiety
  • Low self-esteem
  • Avoid speaking

The doctors and researchers are yet in the dark about the definite cause for this disorder. However, it is often connected with a physical disorder or emotional disturbance. In either case, stammering can be corrected to some extent by special training, which may include reading and speaking. A person suffering from Dysphemia is taught to read and speak slowly and carefully and breathe regularly while speaking.

A hereditary predisposition of Stammering has been noted in many studies. In one study, about 40% of stutterers were found to inherit this disorder.

The treatment of Stuttering is difficult and often demands much skill and a sense of responsibility on the part of the therapist. No medicines have so far been discovered for this treatment. However, psychotherapy, which may include hypnosis, autohypnosis, and speech therapy, has been found quite effective.

Tips to Stop Stammering

Diaphragmatic Breathing: This type of breathing exercise involves breathing from your abdomen and not from the shoulders. Breathe from your belly. Fill up your belly with air during inhalation, and during exhalation, make it very flat.


Diaphragmatic Breathing



Talk Slowly: No need to rush while talking to someone. Taking fast makes you stammer more. Take a deep breath and talk slowly.


Imaginative Conversation:

  • Sit in a relaxed position.
  • Stay calm.
  • Imagine that you are having a conversation with some people.
  • Imagine giving a presentation.
  • Make a clear visualization as if it is real.


Mirror Speaking: Speak with yourself in front of the mirror without Stammering.


Safe Environment: Surround yourself with close people who knows your problem and start practising talking with them.




Prevention of Stammering may even be aided through parent counselling. Parents can take care of their children so that they do not develop the habits of hesitation or syllable repetition, etc. Parental guidance has also been found quite effective in reducing the number of people suffering from Dysphemia.

Practising breathing exercises and meditation can help regulate breathing; thus, it reduces the frequency and severity of Dysphemia.





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