What is Anemia?

Anemia is a particular physical condition in which the amount of haemoglobin or number of red blood cells in a person falls below the normal level. Haemoglobin is the molecule in the red blood cells that carry oxygen; it also contains iron. It is carried in the red blood cells of the human blood and imparts it the red color. Haemoglobin makes it possible for the blood to carry oxygen.


In every healthy human being, hemoglobin maintains a certain level of concentration. The mean values of hemoglobin for males are 15 gms per decilitre and for females 13.5 gms per decilitre. Values that are less than 2.5 or 3 standard deviations below the mean are indicative of Anaemia. The mean values are greater for adult males than for the females and again greater in adults as compared to the children.

Anemia Diagnosis

To detect Anemia in the body. Accumulation of three things in the blood is measured. These are 

  •  Hemoglobin,
  •  Red-cell count
  •  Hematocrit. 

If any of the values are below the normal level, the person is said to be Anemic.


Causes of Anemia

This disease may have several causes. The major ones are:


  • defective blood formation
  • cell destruction
  • extensive loss of blood 

Moreover, there are a number of physical disorders, any of which can cause different types of Anemia.

Causes of Anemia


Types of Anemia


  • Microcytic Anaemia ( red cells are smaller than the normal size)
  • Macrocytic Anaemia (red cells are larger than the normal size)
  • Normocytic Anaemia (red cells are normal size)
  • Hypochromic Anaemia (cells contain very little hemoglobin)

Anaemia resulting from sudden blood loss is generally hormocytic in nature.


Types of Anemia


Red cells have an average life-span of 120 days in circulation. This Red blood cell gets removed when it is aged or damaged. These damaged red blood cells get removed in three main organs; the spleen, the liver, and the bone marrow. Anaemia occurs when this rate of removal of red cells from the circulation exceeds the replacement or when the production of red cells is impaired or is ineffective in delivering cells to the circulation.

Anaemia, which results from increased red blood cell destruction, is known as hemolytic Anaemia. Hemolytic Anaemia is generally caused due to poisoning, malaria, poor diet, allergy, or some heredity condition.

A common form of iron-deficiency anaemia is seen in a common occurrence among women, especially during pregnancy, since the mother has to supply iron to her baby in the womb. Excessively heavy periods can also cause Anemia.














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